Connect One Design Shout Out

The Plantium is made for landscape professionals BY landscape professionals. To that end, it’s been an exciting summer in the Colorado mountains and the Connect One Design landscape architecture team has been hard at work. Check out Connect One Design in the media. We couldn’t do what we do without an amazing staff and The Plantium software!

Here’s just a few fun pics from the field. Enjoy!

 

Importance of the Allergy Friendly Landscape

Most of us think summer sneezing just ‘comes with the territory’ but did you know that you can alleviate some of it with an allergy friendly landscape!  As landscape professionals, the concept of an allergy friendly landscape is a crucial one. Regardless of the scale of a project our understanding of high pollen generating plants is critical to making some changes for the better in our cultivated landscapes.

Wind blown pollen

Wind blown pine tree pollen. Makes me sneeze just looking at it!

Background

Most of us suffer from just a little sneezing and sniffling from seasonal allergies but the implications of high pollen rates can be far more serious. “Deaths from asthma continue to climb each year at alarming epidemic rates”.1 While the causes of these increases can be debated it is clear that high pollen rates play a role in many health related issues, especially in the young, old and those with compromised respiratory and circulatory systems.

Studies have shown death rates among high-risk populations increase on days with high pollen and high pollution. Similar to the association of very hot or very cold weather to higher death rates, one cannot attribute it directly to the weather condition but rather see a correlation in high-risk populations.2 Impacts like thunder death outbreaks also bring home shocking impacts of high pollen in urban settings.3

So, how did we arrive at the increases in allergies and asthma? We all know the issue relates to high pollen counts, but what is pollen and has atmospheric pollen been on the rise in recent years? Pollen is the microscopic grain carrying the male gamete of a plant that will pollinate (via transport by insects, birds, wind, etc.) the female ovule of a plant. This microscopic grain is both an irritant and a nasal allergen in humans (and other animals; yup, dogs get allergies). Anemophilous plants generally cause the most allergies because they pollinate primarily by wind. The pollen grains of those plants are light and small, in order to be easily dispersed by the wind (and therefore tend to stay airborne and easily breathed in by humans). The role of female plants in an allergy friendly landscape is critical because they are attractive (for sure 🙂 )! The pistil of female plants is STICKY in order to capture the pollen grain. In an allergy friendly landscape female plants (and flowers) are important because they both do NOT produce pollen, AND they pull pollen out of the air with sticky attractiveness! Two other important aspects of pollen creation are important to understand as well – pollen production is increased dramatically with additional CO2 in the atmosphere (urban settings) and changes to the timing of pollen generation is being sparked by increased climatic temperatures.

Microscopic Helianthus Pollen

Microscopic Helianthus Pollen – it sure looks like it would irritate anybody’s nose!

So what does this have to do with the cultivated landscape and an allergy friendly landscape? This is where the concept of botanical sexism comes into our vocabulary. “Arborists often claim that all-male plants are ‘litter-free’ because they shed no messy seeds, fruits or pods. In the 1949 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture, which focused on trees and forests, this advice was given to readers: ‘When used for street plantings, only male trees should be selected, to avoid the nuisance from the seed.’ In the years following, the USDA produced and released into the market almost 100 new red maple and hybrid-maple-named clones (cultivars), and every single one of them was male.”4 At The Plantium, we believe male cultivars have an important place in the landscape, but it is important to understand that the use of male (and only male) cultivars and overall plant selection play the most important role in developing an allergy friendly landscape.

Scope and Scale

When and where it is important to think about an allergy friendly landscape? There are many projects where understanding the right plants for a low allergy and allergy friendly landscape are important. Being conscious of pollen generation on all your projects can help address the growing issue of high pollen in the cultivated landscape. Our responsibility as landscape professionals should be taken seriously! Consider your client when embarking on a residential design. Just asking the question about any allergy or asthma sufferers in the household (and then designing an allergy friendly landscape) can help make a successful landscape and a happy client. Allergy friendly landscape plant selection is most important around high risk populations, including playgrounds and senior living projects. Finally, projects in urban centers should be addressed carefully as the greatest population of allergy and asthma sufferers per capita reside in cities.

Amaryllis Stamen

Up close and personal on the Amaryllis stamen. The sticky pistil of an amaryllis flower gathers up all this pollen for fertilization!

Making Great Plant Choices

All of this background begs the question… what do we do now? Here are a few thoughts.

  1. Understand and educate yourself on the benefits of the allergy friendly landscape.
  2. Familiarize yourself with the OPALS rating system. Thomas Ogren created the first and only known rating system that ranks the allergy potential of plants.
  3. Discuss the need for an allergy friendly landscape with your client.
  4. Educate yourself on types of plants that might fit in an allergy friendly landscape and follow a few best practices such as:
  • Gender balance the landscape.
  • Use fewer wind pollinated species.
  • Encourage sterile cultivars and showy flowers (most plants with big colorful flowers are insect pollinated! Bees welcome?!).
  • Avoid high pollinators: male only willows, poplars, aspens, ash, (fruitless) mulberry, cypress, junipers, yews, myrtles, currants, etc., olive trees, Bermuda grass. Fruit trees are good but nut trees tend to be allergenic.
  • Develop maintenance manuals for your clients that encourages trimming of existing high pollinators and good maintenance of installed plants (e.g. trimming privet before it flowers). The Healthy Schoolyards Initiative5 has a great start at a list of maintenance measures that can be undertaken on existing landscapes.

The Politics of Allergy Friendly Landscapes

While it appears uncertain that low pollen ordinances are having an impact, landscape professionals should be aware that there are a growing number of urban centers enacting pollen control ordinances, including Pima County, AZ, Clark County, NV, Albuquerque, NM, Phoenix and Tucson, AZ, and El Paso, TX, among others. Other cities such as Louisville are embarking on some truly innovative approaches to understanding and addressing the epidemic.

Conclusion

While we can thank pollen for so many wonderful things like solving murders (it’s a plant’s fingerprint!), determining the age and quality of coal seams, and our delicious fruits and vegetables we now need to be stewards of our own air and address the issue of excessive pollen in our cultivated landscapes!

References:

  1. http://www.academia.edu/4110694/Politics_of_Pollen_Article Copyright 2001, Tom Ogren
  2. http://www.webmd.com/allergies/news/20000427/high-pollen-linked-death#1
  3. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-38121579
  4. https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/botanical-sexism-cultivates-home-grown-allergies/
  5. http://www.healthyschoolyards.org/

Image References

https://commons.wikimedia.org

Designing with Dog Friendly Plants

Ever wonder how we get our yards, parks, and streetscapes to be ‘dog friendly’? As in, how do we design a urine and trample resistance landscape filled with dog friendly plants? Well, let’s start with thinking about some alternative groundcovers that can take a little beating. These are plants that can be used as an alternative to turf. Turf alternatives can save water AND help fight off the brown patches that come with a ‘dog heavy’ landscape. A couple good examples in the attached pdf include Elfin Thyme and Ajuga. These are just two great choices, but you can always use your filter criteria and select low growing plants that can withstand foot traffic. In The Plantium’s filter criteria you’ll find the foot traffic filter under ENVIRONMENT.

The second issue is urine resistance. While this is NOT a filter in The Plantium, the attached pdf has some tried and true choices that can withstand the excessive nitrogen content in dog urine. Again, not an exhaustive list but a good start. Remember to also consider any plants that are TOXIC to pets and avoid those. Sending your little furry friend to the vet would definitely NOT be considered dog friendly plants! For those Plantium users, this is a filter criteria under WILDLIFE. For those of you not yet in The Plantium you can visit the ASPCA site (Plantium’s filter criteria is WAY easier, though!) 🙂

Lastly, and perhaps most obvious would be water. The faster you can wash away any leave behinds from the doggie visitors, the better chance of avoiding the burn spots, so let’s take back those brown patches and get into our dog friendly plants!

Dog Friendly List

https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/animal-poison-control/toxic-and-non-toxic-plants

 

Using Denitrifying Plants in the Landscape

Turns out we have an addiction in this country. “Call it the nitrogen fix. It is like a drug mainlined into the planet’s ecosystems, suffusing every cell, every pore — including our own bodies.”1 In response, some jurisdictions (apparently finding dealing with addiction at the source – i.e. agriculture, wastewater, feed lots, poor landscape practices, etc. too difficult) are requiring the end user of non-potable reclaimed effluent to utilize only denitrifying plants in the landscape. Their theory being that if the ornamental plants can take up the nitrogen, then problem solved.

This discussion of overabundance of nitrogen in our water and soil could get really scientific, really fast (and unfortunately make for very dry reading) so instead I’m going to keep things pretty simple and straightforward and provide some great resources for seeking additional information.

The nitrogen problem. “Over the last century, the intensive use of chemical fertilizers has saturated the Earth’s soils and waters with nitrogen. Now scientists are warning that we must move quickly to revolutionize agricultural systems and greatly reduce the amount of nitrogen we put into the planet’s ecosystems.”1 Excessive nitrogen leaches into waterways, feeds algal blooms and contributes to eutrophication of water systems….. effectively starving plant and aquatic life of oxygen. It can even starve our children of oxygen, known as Blue Baby Syndrome, as a result of nitrogen contaminated drinking water.

The good news. Nitrogen is an inorganic compound which, unlike other macronutrients, can be turned to gas and released into the atmosphere. More good news. This means that the use of denitrifying plants can be addressed via phytometabolism in a relatively short period of time and presents good opportunities for field application.2 “Since all plants use nitrogen and support denitrifying bacteria, any kind of plant can provide some form of nitrogen remediation from soils and water. However, the method that provides the quickest remediation tends to be a system that includes plants with very high growth rates and evapotranspiration rates. Nitrogen is used up quickly, or the plant acts like a large reactor, priming the soil bacteria for speedy conversion of the nitrogen into a gas. Plants species that produce a lot of biomass have been those most successfully used in studies to remove high levels of nitrogen in soils and groundwater.”3 Some would then argue for the use of bluegrass and other fast growing turf, but studies have shown that a mixed species landscape will produce a more diverse microbial soil, and therefore denitrify faster via plants AND bacteria.

Finding the right plants. While in no way an exhaustive list, the book Phyto: Principles and resources for site remediation and landscape design, suggests a brief list of high biomass plants such as Bambuseae, Brassica juncea, Brassica napas, Cannabis sativa, Linum usitatissimum, Panicum virgatum, Populus, Salix and Sorghum. Additionally, some high evapotranspiration-rate plants include Alnus, Betula, Eucalyptus, Fraxinus, Populus, Salix, Sarcobatus vermiculatus and Taxodium distichum. Again, while not an exhaustive list one thing to note is that these tend to be high water use species. In a large scale remediation setting this is desirable (because you are purposefully applying large amounts of contaminated water), however, it tends to fly in the face of end user goals in the ornamental landscape that are working hard to reduce overall water consumption.

Unfortunately, it would seem that municipalities, especially in drought plagued areas trying to encourage water reuse, may end up further discouraging effluent reuse with these unnecessary regulations and may find themselves dealing with unintended consequences, such as forcing the use of plants that require even more water to both thrive and denitrify the soil. It is clearly a discussion worth continuing.

 

I’d like to thank Kate Kennen for the amazing information gathered from her book for this article. Kate is always an inspiration and this book is an INCREDIBLE resource for all practical applications, large or small, for phytoremediation and productive landscapes. It is a must read!

Find Kate here….  http://offshootsinc.com/

Find her book here…. https://www.amazon.com/Phyto-Principles-Resources-Remediation-Landscape/dp/0415814154

  1. Fred Pearce. Copyright 2009. http://e360.yale.edu/mobile/feature.msp?id=2207
  2. Kate Kennen and Niall Kirkwood, Phyto: Principles and resources for site remediation and landscape design. Routledge, 2015. Figure 3.1, Page 63
  3. Page 128

Sourcing Plants – New Plant Availability Feature (beta)

Sourcing plants is about to be easier than ever!

UPDATED 5/1/17

Just choose your state and see all of The Plantium’s participating nurseries. Don’t see your favorite nursery? Just complete the form and get their information on our site as soon as possible! You can now also export existing plant lists as a spreadsheet, including availability.

Colorado Nurseries

Plant availability is live on The Plantium. Do you want to sign up a nursery that you frequently go to for plant material? Send them this link. Fill out the quick easy form and we can list that nursery’s stock for FREE! ENJOY!

For Nurseries

Plant Availability (beta) is LIVE! Sourcing plants can be the most disheartening part of planting design.  As a landscape architect I cannot think of anything more frustrating than spending hours choosing just the right plants for a project only to have my contractor or nursery supplier come back and tell me they cannot find half of what I specified. It drives me crazy!

That is why we are so excited to launch the new Plantium availability feature (beta) in Colorado, Utah and beyond. Landscape professionals in these states will soon be able to search for great plants, make lists, evaluate their designs AND locate those plants at nearby nurseries. While only in beta version right now, we are thrilled to make finding plants just a little bit easier. This plant availability feature will be live in the coming weeks. Start your free one month trial now, and take advantage of your free web training session so you can be ready to take full advantage of this new time saver as soon as it hits the primetime!

Thanks and Happy Plant Hunting!

By Heather Henry, President and CEO of The Plantium

Understanding Nursery Stock Sizes

It’s time to build your plant lists…. And there’s one thing to remember. Size matters! But understanding and deciphering standard nursery stock sizes can be like trying to find your way out of an Iowa cornfield. You’re bound to get lost a few times. Everyone calls out nursery stock sizes differently. Gallons, flat size, tree height, or caliper have all appeared in our plant lists. But depending on your familiarity with the nursery industry, you may not know that there is a continuously updated national standard on how to spec nursery stock sizes!

When writing this blog, I set out to include a nice handy, dandy all-purpose cheat sheet for our landscape professionals but it turns out that is easier said than done! Instead, this article provides a brief overview of the standard and can get you started on the right path to learning more for the next time you specify plants. We cannot promise that your suppliers will be following this standard to the number and letter, but if you stay familiar with the standards you will be much more likely to specify the nursery stock sizes that are available.

Specifying the Right Sizes Takes Knowledge

Specifying the Right Sizes Takes Knowledge

Called the American Standard for Nursery Stock, this national standard is published and maintained by AmericanHort, which is a somewhat recently formed consolidation of the American Nursery & Landscape Association and OFA—The Association of Horticultural Professionals.

According to AmericanHort, “The purpose of the American Standard for Nursery Stock … is to provide buyers and sellers of nursery stock with a common terminology, a ‘single language,’ in order to facilitate commercial transactions involving nursery stock. For instance, the Standard establishes common techniques for (a) measuring plants, (b) specifying and stating the size of plants, (c) determining the proper relationship between height and caliper, or height and width, and (d) determining whether a root ball or container is large enough for a particular size plant.”

The organization has been publishing this nursery standard since 1923, and it was adopted as a national standard in 1949 (ANSI Z60.1-2014). The most recent revision to the standard was published in 2014, and is available free from AmericanHort HERE. Use of this standard when growing and specifying plants is voluntary, but it is widely accepted and often referenced in standard specification sections. Using the standard has many benefits for designers and contractors, not the least of which is simplifying the procurement and acceptance processes by relying on clear pre-defined standards for quality and size of nursery stock.

The complete standard may be a daunting 109 pages but it is a surprisingly easy read, and provides in-depth, but digestible information. Below are a few key points from the American Standard for Nursery Stock you may find helpful (along with a cheat sheet to get you to the appropriate tables in the larger document). However, we would HIGHLY recommend reading through the whole standard and having a copy handy. It truly provides an amazing wealth of info (there’s a great section on identifying unacceptable co-dominant leaders – a problem I’ve had first hand issues with!). This resource also provides all the information necessary when accepting or rejecting plant material that shows up at your site!

 General Standards for Nursery Stock Sizes:

  • Specifications must include plant size by caliper, height or width appropriate to the plant type.
  • Certain plants may be specified by container size (see below). ALL others should be specified with caliper, height or width.
  • Typically, plant size specifications should include only the minimum allowable plant size in that interval. In other words, if you specify a 2.5 in. caliper Type 1 shade tree you may get a tree anywhere up to a 3 in caliper because it references the 2.5 to 3 inch range for that type of tree. As long as you specify the minimum, you know you will not get a SMALLER tree.
  • Caliper is always measured six inches above ground or soil level for trees less than 4.5” caliper, and 12 inches above the ground for 4.5” or larger.

General Standards for Containers:

  • These are generally the only plants to specify by container size
    • Herbaceous perennials
    • Non-winter-hardy shrubs
    • Ornamental grasses
    • Groundcovers
    • Vines
  • Containers marketed and sold with a # designation must have volumes within the ranges shown in the ANSI standard in order to comply
  • Container classes #1 through #100 include the volume of a container that, if such a container were manufactured, would hold the equivalent number of gallons as the container class number. #1 = one gallon; #5 = five gallon and so on.
  • Nursery stock specifications that reference only an imperial volume measurement, such as “quarts” or “gallons,” are not in accordance with the Standard. I can tell you that our plant lists have gotten that WRONG for years!!
  • The SP designation refers to ‘small plant’ containers. #SP4, for example, is a 4 inch container, or “quart” container. This designation goes from #SP1 – #SP5 and should reference square or round.
  • Container grown nursery stock shall have a well-established root system reaching the sides of the container to maintain a firm ball, but shall not have excessive root growth encircling the inside of the container (the same holds true for roots in ball and burlap!).

 

Root Bound

Container Growth Gone Wrong – Root Bound Tree

Tree B&B

When Done Right – A Thing of Beauty

 

Shade and Flowering Trees:

  • There are FOUR types of shade and flowering trees identified in the standard with the following associated specifications tables
    • Type 1 – Page 15-16
    • Type 2 – Page 17
    • Type 3 – Page 19
    • Type 4 – Page 21
    • Multi-stem and Shrub Form Trees – Page 24
  • Multi-stem tree specifications should include a minimum number of stems. If none is specified, 3 will be assumed.

Deciduous Shrubs:

  • There are THREE types of deciduous shrubs identified in the standard with associated specifications
    • Type 0 – Page 28
    • Type 1 – Page 28
    • Type 2 – Page 29
    • Type 3 – Page 30
  • Plants may not meet plant size specification or minimum number of canes at time of shipment at certain times of the year, but would be expected to reach the plant size specification and minimum number of canes during the first growing season after shipment.

Coniferous Evergreens:

  • There are SIX types of Coniferous Evergreens identified in the standard with associated specifications
    • Type 1 – Page 32
    • Type 2 – Page 33
    • Type 3 – Page 34
    • Type 4 – Page 36
    • Type 5 – Page 38
    • Type 6 – Page 40
  • Coniferous evergreens will also be described by their shearing:
    • Natural: (showing the form natural for the species)
    • Semi Sheared (sheared when plant is young to maintain symmetrical shape)
    • Sheared (pruned regularly to retain a symmetrical shape)
    • Altered Form (Can you say POODLED!!)

Broadleaf Evergreens:

  • There are SIX types of Coniferous Evergreens identified in the standard with associated specifications
    • Type 1 – Page 42
    • Type 2 – Page 44
    • Type 3 – Page 46
    • Type 4 – Page 48
    • Type 5 – Page 50
    • Type 6 – Page 52

Additional information in the standard provides specs for young plants, roses, palms (and other bare root stock), fruit trees, bulbs, corms/ tubers, and understock/seedling trees and shrubs.

Now, armed with this great information, you can confidently go forth and specify!

Also, check out these other great articles regarding considerations on transplant size:

https://www.michigan.gov/documents/dnr/Influence_of_Tree_Size_on_Transplant_Establishment_277656_7.pdf

http://www.ncufc.org/uploads/Tree_Establishment_A_Review_of_Some_of_the_Factors_(Struve_2009).pdf

Find Your Inspiration

Find Your Inspiration

Where do I find my inspiration for designing beautiful gardens year after year? Ten years ago I first witnessed a living wall at the Chelsea Flower show in England and after lots of dreams and drawing boards I finally got to create my first living wall last summer 2015 right here in downtown Aspen, Colorado.

in·spi·ra·tion

  1. Noun: the process of being mentally stimulated to do or feel something, especially to do something creative.

Inspiration and trends in gardening can start from an article in a magazine, a student’s concept while studying at University or at the array of garden shows that are held all over the world.  This is where I find my best inspiration.

A particular favorite garden show of mine is the Chelsea Flower Show in London, England – where all of the best and greatest designers in the world all gather over ten days and meet to show off their latest creations. It was here at the Chelsea Show I first saw a living wall and marveled at this enormous structure covered in plants.  Without seeing the vision of the designers before me – I would never have been inspired to cover a concrete wall in flowers!!!

These shows provide not just single inspiration (i.e. living walls) but everything from solar paneled irrigation, new types of plants (cross pollinating a rose and a daisy!) and even animal habitats. Creative urban wildlife habitats are another huge trend that I first saw at Chelsea as well as water features created from household gray water. Show and display gardens are designed to impress at garden shows so if you really want to see what’s at the cutting edge of gardening then you’d better hit the show road.

Garden shows are featured all over the world – Holland, Japan, England and America and feature world class innovators and designers who create show gardens that win awards and prizes and wow us all. Depending on the size of the show local, national and international celebrity gardeners such as Piet Oudolf (a particular favorite of mine) will unleash new planting schemes and plant combinations that are created in an environmentally conscious way to thrill and tantalize us all. By witnessing world class designers and their incredible ideas we can all take small parts of this back to our own backyards. Not that you have to build a living wall in your own back garden but rather maybe, just maybe someone else’s genius idea displayed at your local gardening show might just be the inspiration for your own garden designs!  After all we are all inspired by others.

Here is a selection of inspirational gardens that have moved me over the years.

Happy Planting!

Arabella Beavers, Busy Beavers Gardening

https://www.facebook.com/Busy-Beavers-Gardening-LLC-201131763257382/?fref=ts

Aspen, Colorado

All photos Copyright 2016 Arabella Beavers

Garden Inspiration

Beautifully designed stone wall also serves as urban wildlife habitat.

Garden Inspiration

A living wall seen in indoor and outdoor applications.

Garden Inspiration

This greenhouse should blow your mind!

Garden Inspiration

A living tower gives entirely new meaning to vertical planting.

Garden Inspiration

Xeric Mediterranean style in any climate.

Garden Inspiration

The beauty of hundreds of Clematis!

Garden Inspiration

A ‘plethora’ of lavender from many different growers!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Plantium: The Beginning

It’s time to do a planting design. Eyes roll. There’s a lot of sighing. It is not pretty.

After spending hours on the design process for the hardscape somehow we continually short-change the plant design. Instead of supporting and becoming integral to our designs, it lingered behind, relegated to the last 10% of the fee (if we were lucky) and constantly approached with trepidation and angst. Why would this critical component of our landscape profession, a profession with a rich history of close and careful integration of hard and soft elements, be left to wither (no pun intended) at the end of the design process? Because each plant design began with the arduous task of combing through some existing plant lists buried in the electronic files of the server’s nether regions, then we’d pull up six websites and spread out a dozen print references. We’d try to choose plants that would be successful under the project’s environmental and design conditions. Once chosen we’d spend hours combing for imagery and creating boards and graphs that might explain this elusive effort of plant design to clients generally unversed in even basic plant knowledge. All this effort to then learn these plants are not even available for purchase commercially.

The Plantium Debuts at ASLA 2015

The Plantium Debuts at ASLA 2015

The Plantium founders having way too much fun.

The Plantium founders having way too much fun.

Did you also know some of our top landscape architecture programs around the country are dropping plant identification and plant design classes all together? So, even our young staff was entering the profession grossly underdeveloped in the area of plant design.

IF we were fortunate to have a go-to ‘plant person’ in house or at least nearby he/ she would bust out their ‘tried and true’ plants that had been used dozens of times before. Yet, somehow, we continued to be shocked when our plant designs all started to look the same! The chasm between softscape and hardscape seems destined to grow ever larger… until now. Where was our ability to be as creative in our plant selections as we were in our hardscape designs? We needed a solution. We needed a place that would aggregate all this plant information into one consolidated source and help us quickly and easily evaluate plants that met ever evolving project design challenges.

So was born The Plantium. As founders we wanted to solve for our own ever growing frustrations. Launched in Colorado with humble beginnings by four founders, three landscape professionals and one software developer, The Plantium will electronically organize and revolutionize the entire process of plant searching, management, purchasing and maintenance. One step at a time we will ‘change the way the world sees plants’.

We are thrilled to be releasing new features and critical bug fixes at the beginning of the year that will be a major step forward in our software’s functionality. Sign up now for a free trial or drop us your email address and we’ll make sure you get a notification when The Plantium 1.0 has on its ‘Sunday best’! Stay tuned to this blog in the future to meet the founders individually as well as hear a little more about The Plantium. We look forward to getting to know you!

https://app.theplantium.com/register